Filtration and Ion Exchange

Water softeningWater softening systems are used to reduce water hardness, remove multivalent cations (usually Ca2+ and Mg2+) from the water and prevent scaling. Softeners are based on the ion-exchange principle and consist of three main elements – tank (housing), resin, and control valve. See Details…
Ion exchangeIon exchange systems are utilized in water treatment to remove the excess of salts from the solution. Usually, ion exchange resin (anion, cation or mixed) is used for this purpose. Cation resin removes positively charged ions (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, etc), anion resin removes negatively charged ions (OH-, Cl-, SO42-, etc), and mixed bed resin is employed to remove both types of ions. One of the most popular application of ion exchange principle is the water softening for power generating industry, air conditioning, boilers, etc. See Details…
Sand filtersSand filters have for been used in water treatment industry for many years. They are capable of removing mechanical particles, pathogens, and relatively large colloid particles. Most often, they are used in conjunction with more sophisticated purification methods for the treatment of drinking water, wastewater, water recycling, and many other applications. See Details…
Activated carboActivated carbon filters or granulated activated carbon filters (GAC) are usually used for removal of odor, organics, colloid particles, chlorine residuals, and other contaminants. They allow achieving chlorine concentrations below 0.1 ppm when removing chlorine residuals. GAC filters are often put after the sedimentation basins to further decrease the turbidity, remove color, and improve water quality; they can be also used as a pretreatment step before the RO, UF or IX treatment. See Details…
Iron and manganeseIron and manganese removal systems are often used for treatment of drinking and technical water in areas with high iron and manganese concentrations. Treatment method includes the aeration of soluble metals to oxidize them to their insoluble form, after which they can be easily removed by filtration or adsorption. See Details…
Bag filtersBag filters are easy to use, leakage-proof, reliable, and are able to treat large amount of water. Using the replaceable filtration bag allows adjusting the filtration precision when needed. It also prevents contact between raw and purified water and simplifies the filter replacement, decreasing the operational cost. See Details…
Disc filtersDisc filters consist of multiple polypropylene discs with uniform grooves on each of their sides. When stacked together, discs form a hollow cylinder with openings on the wall. The shape of these openings depends on the grooves’ geometry, dimensions, and relative position of two adjacent discs. This way the cross-sectional pattern of the grooves creates extra turbulence, providing both screen filtration and adhesion mechanisms. Double filtration mechanism improves the performance and reduces the fouling effects. See Details…
Cartridge filtersCartridge filters or security filters usually consist of stainless steel cylindrical housing, the lid, and a cartridge element, made of natural or synthetic fibers, stainless steel net, GAC or other adsorption media. Choice of the filtration media depends on the type of source water, target water quality, system capacity and other factors. Cartridge filters are easy to open and replace, saving the operation cost and time. Cartridge filters are mostly used for liquid filtration, clarification and purification. See Details…
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